I'm not sure which Windows Update causes this issue but it changes the associations for a number of extensions causing quite the problem.  A system restore failed and I was left to hunt for a solution.  Searching around, I found a number of options but nothing solved the problem until I came across the following Powershell one-liner:

Get-AppXPackage | Foreach {Add-AppxPackage -DisableDevelopmentMode -Register "$($_.InstallLocation)\AppXManifest.xml"}

This might error out in parts but it still worked in several situations.  The only time I found an issue was when the user logged in did not have administrative privileges to their local machine -- even when I launch Powershell with "Run as Administrator".  Other than that, it works without even a reboot.